Citrus amblycarpa (Hassk.) Ochse
Citrus amblycarpa is native to West Java (Indonesia) that is grown in the local backyard, thus is easily found in local cuisines. Limau has great potentials for use as a potted plant in home gardens for its aesthetic value and fragrance. The plant is cultivated for its fruit, especially in Java, where it is found for sale in most markets. The extremely fragrant juice of the young or half-ripe fruits is used as a condiment to enhance the taste of several Javanese dishes. It is also added to rice flour in the preparation of ragi yeast cakes. Its essential oil of leaves and fruit peel has analgesic and antioxidant activities.
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Three main climates are suitable for commercial citrus production – tropical climates, subtropical with winter rain and semitropical with summer rainfall. The optimal temperatures for citrus cultivation range between 25-30 °C, with the coldest month having an average minimum of at least 15 °C. Growth generally ceases below 13 °C and above 38 °C. If there are dry periods of more than three months, then irrigation will be necessary. This species is cultivated at elevations from sea level to 350 m. Prefers a deep, well-drained but moisture-retentive loamy soil in full sun. Prefers a pH in the range 5-6.
- Stem – woody, sparse branching with small spines.
- Leaves – small fragrant shiny leaves, petiole with 0.5-3.5 cm, oval to elliptic, blunt tip, 2-15 cm long.
- Fruit – aromatic with the diameter of around 2-4 cm, and has a thick irregular skin and turn from green to yellow when mature.
- Flower – small white flowers.
- Generative propagation is by seed. The seed is best sown in containers as soon as it is ripe, after thoroughly rinsing it. Germination usually takes place within 2-3 weeks at 13 °C. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 10 cm or more tall before planting out into their permanent positions.
- Vegetative propagation is by cuttings and layering.
- Cutting of half-ripe wood – This species grows easily from cuttings.
- Phytosterols, fatty acids, terpenes, 6-octadecenoic acid, palmitate, essential oils (alpha sinensal, alpha limonene, beta citronellal, citronellol, and sabinene), flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, glycoside.
TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL USES
- It is used to boost immunity system, to treat flu, eyestrain, diabetes, and ulcer.
- Studies have shown that it has antioxidant and anagesic activities.
- Budiarto, Rahmat, et al. (2017). The Potentials of Limau (Citrus amblycarpa Hassk. Ochse) as A Functional Food and Ornamental Mini Tree Based on Metabolomic and Morphological Approaches. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, Vol 4 (2). DOI:10.29244/jtcs.4.2.49-57.
- Fern, Ken (2021). Useful Tropical Plants: Citrus amblycarpa. https://tropical.theferns.info/
- Gardenenur. (No date). Nasnaran Mandarin Fruits (Jeruk Limau) – Citrus Amblycarpa. https://www.gardeneur.com/
- Maharani, R. A. I. K. et al. (2020). KULIT BUAH JERUK LIMAU (Citrus amblycarpa (Hassk.) Osche) SEBAGAI ANALGESIK. Jurnal Kimia (Journal of Chemistry), [S.l.], p. 24-29, feb. 2020. ISSN 2599-2740. 31-01-2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24843/JCHEM.2020.